The Forbidden City expert teaches you how to identify the identification of three kinds of red sandalwood

There are many kinds of wood belonging to the genus Pterocarpus, but there is only one type of rosewood recognized in the botanical world, "san sandalwood". Commonly known as "small leaf sandalwood." The rest of the types of sandalwood are summarized in the grass rosewood.

In the past ten years, with the warming of furniture collection, people's understanding of furniture materials has been deepening and improving. But at the same time, there are still some inconsistencies and irregularities. In the past, I have written articles about the materials used in furniture in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. After a decade, the past understanding is obviously not enough in terms of depth and breadth. Some specific problems now seem obvious errors and errors, and it is necessary to Make a new understanding of the material.

Chinese traditional furniture materials mainly include: fragrant branches (ie, huanghuali), rosewood, red sandalwood, rosewood, iron pear, ebony, chicken wing wood, nanmu, eucalyptus, shadow wood, yellow yang, eucalyptus, eucalyptus, birch and so on. In recent years, a large number of high-quality wood products imported from abroad have been complicated and the name is also very chaotic. The vast majority of consumers lack the understanding of all kinds of high-grade wood. Some profit-seekers use the psychology of people to appreciate high-grade wood. They are shoddy. Any black wood is better than the red sandalwood. Any yellow wood is called pear or yellow pear. . Profit from it and defraud the ill-gotten gains. In order to regulate the timber market and raise consumer awareness of wood, it is recommended to read more about botanical books. A few years ago, Mr. Yang Jiaxuan from the Institute of Wood Industry of the State Forestry Administration edited a book on wood standards called "Chinese Redwood". The use of the fuzzy concept of "redwood" in the book is debatable. However, the scientific classification of various types of wood and the specific analysis of various types of wood have important reference value.


Red sandalwood is one of the most valuable wood species in the world. It refers to the rare amount of rare red sandalwood, and it is rare for the world. According to historical records, rosewood is mainly produced in the tropical regions of the Nanyang Islands, followed by Southeast Asia. China's Guangdong and Guangxi also produce rosewood, but the number is small. A large number of materials are mainly imported.

The red sandalwood is evergreen sub-arbor, high five or six feet high, the leaves are compound leaves, the flowers are butterfly-shaped, the fruit has wings, the wood is very firm and red, and the water is sinking. According to "Chinese Tree Taxonomy": "Purplewood is a leguminous plant, there are about fifteen species, and there are two kinds produced in China, one is red sandalwood and the other is rosewood." According to the understanding of modern botanical circles, Rosewood is actually the large fruit rosewood produced in India. It differs greatly from the traditional rosewood, which people do not regard as rosewood. Among the fifteen species of red sandalwood, except for the sandalwood rosewood (commonly known as bovine rosewood) produced in southern India, the rest are called grass pears. Rosewood is just one of the varieties of grass and pear. No matter which kind of grass pear, its color, texture and hardness are different from the traditionally recognized rosewood. Although it belongs to the plant of the genus Pterocarpus, it cannot be compared with the rosewood. Mr. Wang Shizhen mentioned in "The Ming Dynasty Furniture Treasures" that "American Schafer had investigated the red sandalwood and thought that the Chinese rosewood imported from Indochina was a rosewood." This argument is obviously wrong.

"The Museum of the Museum" and "Zhu Fanzhi" put the rosewood into the sandalwood class, and thought that the red sandalwood is a kind of sandalwood. "The Museum of History" contains: "There are several kinds of sandalwood, there are the wonders of yellow, white and purple, which are used today. The Jianghuai River is born of its kind, but not fragrant." He also said: "The sandalwood is out of Guangdong, Yunnan and Zhancheng, Zhenla, Java, mud, Siam, Sanfoqi, and back to the country. There are also such places in Lingnan. The leaves are like lychee, the skin is blue. Sliding." "The sandalwood leather and yellow color are Dalbergia, the skin is clean and white is white sandalwood, the leather is purple and the purple is sandalwood. It is strong and fragrant, and the white sand is especially good." "Zhu Fanzhi" said, "The tree is like the litchi of China, its leaves are also the same, and the purple is called the red sandalwood." The red sandalwood introduced in these two books does not seem to be the red sandalwood used in Ming and Qing furniture. It refers specifically to sandalwood in spices. Judging from the confusion of red sandalwood, Dalbergia and white sandalwood, his understanding of red sandalwood is not deep. In fact, the branches, flowers and leaves of red sandalwood, Dalbergia and white sandalwood are very different, and they are not the same family.

In the spoken language of some people in Beijing, there are also new and old red sandalwood. I think that the old people are purple and the new ones are red. After actual observation, the new red sandalwood they refer to is mostly black rosewood. Old red sandalwood refers to the traditionally recognized cow hairline rosewood. This kind of bovine hairy red sandalwood has different characteristics due to different ecological environment. Some of them have a Venus shape, and some wood colors show a chicken blood red color. Therefore, the names of Venus rosewood and chicken blood rosewood are derived. In fact, they belong to the same tree species. The characteristics of rosewood are mainly characterized by the color of the rhinoceros character, which becomes purple-black when exposed to the air for a long time. (Editor's Note: The lobular rosewood is dark yellow when it is opened. After two or three days, it will become rich red. With the accumulation of years, it will eventually be a luxurious purple black.) The annual ring pattern of rosewood is mostly skein-like. . Some people use this as crab claw or cow hair. Although there are also straight silk places, but there are always skein lines. The red sandalwood has a fine eye and a heavy wood. When making the rosewood furniture, it uses its natural features and uses the light technique without carving. The red sandalwood is hard and the texture is slender, especially its deep color, which is both solemn and beautiful.

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